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What Companies Need to Do to Improve Working Conditions for Women

Ellen Kossek is one of America’s leading social scientists, with an extensive career examining employment practices to advance gender equality and diversity. Her upcoming book,创建性别包容性组织:研究和实践的课程,是来自全国领先的研究人员和从业者的一系列文章的集合,在工作场所的性别纳入中。

本书为人力资源领导者寻求和谐和包容性工作环境寻求途径的凭证,释放巨大的潜力从真正多样化的工作场所获得巨大的潜力。188bet滚球投注它不会远离一些有争议的问题,例如解决妇女首席执行官的近乎临时缺席,以及#MOTOO运动对办公室内动态的影响。

We sat down with Kossek to discuss gender inclusion in the workplace.

边缘:Women constitute only 4.6% of CEO positions, and that number is even less among Fortune 500 companies. What should companies be doing to foster female leadership?

Ellen Kossek:公司需要担心的第一件事是如何增加管道。你不能说你下周要雇用更多女性。进步公司正在与高中和大学生开始课程,以增加对其公司的兴趣。

他们还在研究C-Suite位置的选择要求。有时他们会发现他们过去的一些要求是一个人格测试或全球地位对他们的一些高人才妇女产生了不利影响。例如,女性更有可能成为双重职业婚姻,这是一个挑战,因为他们没有配偶能够在海外移动。妇女也更多地参与护理。有些公司已经看了这些要求,并试图评估他们是否真的需要识别人才。

Companies should also look at what happens to men and women in their careers at about 6 or 7 years in. Many companies are finding that they’re hiring men and women at equal numbers at entry level, and then something happens at about 6 or 7 years in where women are leaving. It could be partly due to lack of policies and flexibility for families, as well as a chilly climate that’s not supportive of listening to women.

边缘:Your book goes into detail about discrimination going beyond direct forms of discrimination to include day-to-day inherent biases. How are you seeing these inherent biases currently manifesting in organizations?

kossek:In very subtle ways. Companies are smart enough to get rid of overt discrimination. Where it’s playing out is in a number of areas. One is in performance appraisal. A Stanford University study found that women were getting better performance ratings than men, but it wasn’t translating over into higher pay. And in some of those performance appraisals, women were getting feedback on personality and style, and less on the technical job requirements.

A second way is the narratives being told about what makes a good leader. When reviews are being held for high-potential employees, characteristics that aren’t often identified in talented women are often talked up. Startup cultures, in particular, will talk about rock stars, and that’s not always equated with a feminine image.

然后有面对时间和工作时间的问题。如果妇女仍在照顾家庭,晚上尽早跳回,但没有人知道,这可能会妨碍评估人才。

边缘:We’ve seen many companies set up employee resource groups (ERGs) to foster greater diversity, on both gender and racial bases. What is your assessment of ERGs? Are they enough?

kossek:他们是一个很好的开端,但如果他们为“第1阶段”所做的话,他们还不够阶段1 erg是当你把人们聚集在一起时,他们有同行网络和安全的空间与类似的社会身份交谈。这真的很重要;我不想低估社会支持,但我认为最成功的公司做了很多事情。

They have a sponsor at a higher level that’s integrated into the ERG so the issues can be linked to senior management. Some companies keep membership open to anyone so it’s not just viewed as an intra-group rivalry, but so anyone who’s supportive of those issues can participate. The best companies link these identity groups to workforce transformation. So it’s not just diversity and inclusion as a separate bucket in these ERGs, but you use them to have conversations. I know a utility company in Nebraska that’s very successful, where the CEO will have open forums to talk about where the business is going.

边缘:您在本书中注意到#METOO运动正在劝阻男性领导者作为女性员工的助理。你会对男性领导人说什么,他们担心女性Protégés因对不当行为的指责而受到关注?

kossek:首先,这必须从领导和人力资源开始,为强大的交叉性别或同性指导提供沟通。鼓励指导,也可以保护员工有一些规则。例如,如果您正在开展商务旅行,也许你带第三个人。也许你不会作为一对出去吃饭,但你有别人加入。公司说,“哦,#metoo运动,我们不能导致” - 这是一个警察局;您只需要提出安全规则,并确保对话正在保护领导和Protégés的权利。

边缘:这是您对多样性本书的一个有趣的报价:“由于领导者的存在,互动的性别和种族的多个和相交的性别和比赛的互动,以产生明显不同的结果。”没有创造不同的环境,尤其是在赛事和性别交叉所关注的地方,公司遗失了什么?188bet滚球投注

kossek:公司不应该像二元变量一样看种族,而是他们应该考虑细微差别。拉丁裔的人可能会带来不同的问题,而不是非洲裔美国或来自宗教少数民族的人。当你有这么多不同的身份时,然后你用性别与他们相交,它为世界许多文化和社会中的许多文化交往。他们都是独特的经历。

Some people would say women of color helped start the feminist movement because they were always working and having children. Sometimes, people who are of other nationalities are immigrants or refugees and bring to work the deep experience of resilience.

我们真的需要以不同的方式思考职业生涯,千禧一代也希望如此。今天许多专业的全职工作每周60小时,那就是让人们关闭。

Looking at social identities across race and ethnicity is really important to making your company tap into the workforce of tomorrow. In states like Texas, racial minorities are the majority, and this is part of your business adapting to the new workforce.

边缘:You speak of the need for companies to ensure “psychological safety” in order for diverse teams to thrive. What do you mean by that?

kossek:心理安全是哈佛商学院的艾美埃德蒙德森做了很多研究的概念。基本上是人们在一个小组中感到安全的想法,说出他们的真实的真实自我。这可能包括说出他们认为错误的事情而不被反对或侮辱。在不同的团队中,不同的成员需要一段时间以信任。

Some minorities face the need for代码切换, or adjusting their speech based on who they’re talking to. We want people to be professional, but we also want them to be their true selves. Sometimes in the corporate world, we value a culture of homogeneity. We need to support different ways of expression and make it safe for people at lower-levels of the firm, who are more likely to be diverse, to say what’s on their minds.

边缘:创建不同的工作环境也意味着创造允许女性在工作场所188bet滚球投注以外的角色平衡工作生活的条件。公司是否正在进行这些条件?

kossek:最简洁的答案是不。许多公司提供不同类型的灵活策略,从Flextime到远程工作。但女性仍然比男人更多的政策。如果您使用它是为了家庭原因而使用它,它会皱起眉头 - 你看起来不是职业生涯。

我们对一个成功的律师或顾问的愿景,以及我们将获得平价的唯一方法是,如果我们为个人和家庭的需要平等为男女灵活性计划进行了平等的灵活性计划。我们现在不这样做。女性仍然是较重的用户。

研究表明,尽管年轻男性性别e值quality more, women are still doing more of the domestic tasks. What I would like to see is companies rewarding more time off for family needs. Careers are not a sprint, but a marathon, and you’re going to lose talent if you don’t allow people to have their work lives fit well with their personal lives.

边缘:Pew Research recently revealed that妇女越来越受雇在需要社会,批判性思维和分析技能的工作中,这导致了工资差距的缩小。为什么我们在这些角色中看到更多女性的趋势?

kossek:One trend might simply be that women are getting the majority of college degrees. There will be a talent shortage if we aren’t using equal parity in hiring women.

正如我们过去所拥有的那样,我们不会让多个移民进入美国。所有经济趋势都表明,如果他们有强大的劳动人才,国家只能成长。因此,您要么在市场中占用妇女,要么用年轻的移民取代您的劳动力池。如果我们没有做后者,公司必须转向女性。

So in some ways, it’s a good thing, and the talent has always been there.

边缘:工程学位的四十个妇女戒烟或永远不会进入该领域。什么是防止茎中的女性在他们的田地中进展?

kossek:许多茎文化是强大的阳像性培养物。他们是长时间的,他们是Macho环境。188bet滚球投注许多这些词干都有实验室,你必须拿到钱,大笔赠款,他们对个人生活并不友好。获得硕士学位或博士后,一些工作不利于寻找合作伙伴或结婚并开始一个家庭。

所以我们真的需要以不同的方式考虑职业生涯,千禧一代也希望如此。在一些国家,每个国家都没有足够的工作。为什么我们要等到员工中有太多人,直到我们开始考虑限制40小时的时间?我在加拿大的大约20家公司学习了减薪工作,今天许多专业的全职工作每周60小时,那就是人们关闭。

边缘:If you’re speaking to a CEO who says they want to change a culture of masculinity in their company, what would you say to them?

kossek:One thing to do would be to cluster-hire women. That way, they’re not viewed as the only one. This is a way to start changing culture. If women are tokens, it’s not going to shift the culture. It takes a long time for organizational culture to shift, and it starts with the top as well. Maybe you hire from other companies that are more gender-balanced because you don’t want to wait for organizational learning to occur in 20 years. You have to change who’s in your company to get that balance. Representation matters.

边缘:Automation is going to affect certain jobs dominated by women. Office workers and administrative assistants, for example, have been identified as being at high-risk of automation, while there may be growth in other areas of the industry. How can companies take the lead in managing the inevitable transfer of skills and mitigate against the particularly negative impacts on women in high-risk automation jobs?

kossek:What we need to do is ensure everyone, not just women, is engaged in lifelong learning. As you see, these jobs become automated, give a lot of support and flexibility for employees to go back to school or do on-the-job training. Don’t wait until things are automated and say, “sorry, you don’t have a job anymore.” Start giving incentives.

Companies should be anticipating what the new jobs are going to be with automation and what skills are going to be needed. Hiring from those within who are willing to retrain is a smart move and will save money because they already know the culture of the company.

Ellen Kossek

罗勒s特纳管理教授热泪盈眶nnert School of Management, Purdue University

Ellen Ernst Kossek是罗勒S. Turner of Management of Management和Susan Bulkeley Butler Center的研究主任,普渡大学Krannert Countrols of Krannert Speclience experience卓越。

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