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亚马逊火灾的经济司机是什么?

A BRINK interview with

In the Amazon, the dry season is underway and continues through November, bringing increased fire activity. It’s estimated that there have been at least 9,000 square kilometers of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon over the past 12 months, which is 34% higher than a year ago.

Meg Symington世界野生动物基金会的董事总经理吗Amazon program. BRINK spoke to her and asked her what the current state of the fires is.

SYMINGTON: The fires began at the end of May. That’s the beginning of the dry season in the Brazilian Amazon, and they’re growing in strength now. I just looked at the latest update that came out and they’ve doubled over the last couple of weeks. The end of August and beginning of September is usually the peak of the burning season. The rains will start again in October.

The fires are actually a lagging indicator of deforestation that took place months ago. The fires burning now are mostly areas that were deforested back in the wet season, before May. The prospectors let the deforested land dry out, and then set fire to it to clear it during the dry season.

BRINK:How important is the Amazon for the Brazilian economy?

桑树:农业商品是巴西经济的最大部门在出口方面。和农贸产主要在亚马逊发生的事情背后。农业前沿正在从传统的农田等地向北移动,如Cerrado和Plains地区,这是该国的面包筐。

Cattle and soy are the root-cause drivers of the deforesting. Brazil is the No. 1 exporter of soy in the world right now. Orange juice, coffee and sugar are also major exports. In order to export soy, Brazil has expanded the road system significantly in the Amazon so that they can take the soy to ports on the Amazon River. This road system has increased land speculation and the pressure to expand the ranching further.

重新造林将有助于保护亚马逊的水文平衡,同时为Covid经济复苏提供急需的就业。

The U.S.-China trade dispute has had some impact on this. The trade tensions with the U.S. have led to a drop in U.S. soy exports to China. And as a result, Brazilian soy exports to China have gone up significantly since 2017.

BRINK:Is there any sign of international economic pressure working on Brazil?

桑树:政府对经济压力最敏感的事情。即使在Covid之前,巴西经济也有一些命中,他们的重点是越来越努力。6月底,全球投资公司,在资产中占约3.7万亿,发了一封信到世界各地的巴西大使馆说,他们非常关注环境状况,并希望谈谈巴西正在做的事情。188bet滚球投注

7月,许多巴西金融公司的首脑随后遵循要求政府采取具体措施来控制森林砍伐。我认为他们担心他们的市场。

Is international pressure working? It is working a little, but I think there’s a lot of show business going on too, trying to show international investors and international markets that the government’s taking it seriously, like reconstituting the Amazon Council and sending military brigades to enforce a moratorium on fires. But it’s a bit like locking the barn door after the cow has already left.

BRINK:Is there any sign of the Brazilian economy diversifying away from these agri-products?

塞门顿:在亚马逊中,扩大生物经济,即不仅仅是大豆和牛的经济选择,就会有一个大的推动。还可以将这些作物的生产强度增加在他们已经生长的土地上。例如,巴西牛牧场目前是非常低产的。加强牛牧场可以帮助满足需求的增加,而不会进一步危害亚马逊。

Sustainable aquaculture of native Amazonian fish is another economic alternative that shows promise. Reforestation of previously degraded and deforested lands in the southern and eastern Amazon would help to preserve the hydrological balance of the Amazon while providing much-needed employment for a post-COVID economic recovery. We need to build a robust pipeline of projects like these with environmental, economic and social benefits to attract “green” investment capital.

Meg Symington

Senior Director at World Wildlife Fund

Meg Symingtonis senior director for the Amazon on the World Wildlife Fund-U.S. Forest Team. She began her career studying tropical ecology and primate behavior and has more than 30 years of experience working in the Amazon.

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