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欧盟2030气候和能源框架:需要更多的治理

In 2009the EU adopted three targetsto meet its energy policy objectives of developing a sustainable, secure and competitive energy system. The targets were translated intonationally binding legislationin 2009 and在2012年

These measures have had a substantial impact on the EU energy system; the share of renewable energy in EU gross energy consumption reached2014年15.3%, and the majority of member states are expected to meet their 2020 renewable energy targets.

在对巴黎气候会议的延续过程中,为了为行业提供指导,2014年欧盟委员会提出了一个新的2030气候和能源政策框架, which was endorsed—with slight adjustments—by theEuropean Council of October 2014

eu_climate_governance

Source: Bruegel

2030年最具争议的方面,这种新的联邦铁路局mework is that, unlike in the previous 2020 Package, the new EU targets will not be translated into national binding targets through EU legislation. Following the approval of the European Council, the European Commission (EC) initially proposed to implement the 2030 Framework at the end of February 2015. The proposals, set out in theEnergy Union Package, aim to provide a coherent approach to climate change, energy security and competitiveness, and to achieve the goals agreed under the 2030 Framework.

Officially, this is due to the willingness to leave“greater flexibility for member states“符合第194(2)条规定的规定Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union(TFEU) on the issue of national control over the energy mix.

However, in reality member states do not share a common vision on how the EU energy market should be organized. Therefore they seek maximum flexibility in order to conduct their national energy policies. For instance, the UK and the Czech Republicsuggest新框架“只应足以使得能够评估集体进展,并且应该明显不如目前在2020年气候和能源包下的情况下的规定。”

This situation raises questions on how the new 2030 Framework will be implemented, and consequently brings the issue of governance into the spotlight.

缺乏强大的欧盟政策允许成员国追求破碎内部能源市场的政策。缺乏约束力的国家目标携带风险,即国家努力不会增加欧盟汇总承诺。

In the absence of binding obligations for member states, only a solid governance structure can guarantee that the 2030 targets will be achieved. In particular,投资者的信心可能会受到破坏without a strong and reliable governance system.

预测这一问题,EC提出了基于2030年框架通信中的国家竞争,安全和可持续能源的国家计划的潜在治理方案。它在三个关键步骤中制定了该计划:1)“EC对国家计划内容编制的详细指南”;2)“通过迭代过程编制成员国计划”;3)“评估成员国的计划和承诺”(如果不足,“EC与成员国之间的更深层次的迭代过程,以加强计划的内容。”)。

2014年10月欧洲理事会会议对该问题采取了更加模糊的立场,并呼吁建立一个“无需任何不必要的行政负担的可靠和透明的治理制度”,以建立在“现有的建筑块”等国家气候,可再生能源和能源效率计划。

因此,2030年气候和能源政策框架的治理问题继续仍然仍未得到解决。2015年9月1日,欧盟委员会的总秘书处向代表团发了一份注释理事会草案关于能源联盟治理制度的结论prepared for the forthcoming Transport, Telecommunication and Energy (TTE) Council that will be held in Luxembourg on November 26, 2015.

In line with the concepts already developed by the EC, the document outlines a governance system based on national energy and climate plans followed by progress reports on the implementation of the same plans, with “aspirational and iterative Dialogue and Monitoring based inter alia on key performance indicators.” According to the document, the “governance cycle will also serve as an ‘early warning system’ by enabling early identification of possible risks and shortfalls as regards all EU energy policy objectives and agreed climate and energy targets.”

Notwithstanding the document’s numerous (and highly bureaucratic) statements, it is still not clear how the proposed governance system would work and in particular how the EC could intervene if a member state didn’t comply with its National Energy and Climate Plan. Unless these crucial issues are clarified before the TTE Council of November, another opportunity to provide real substance to the theoretical 2030 Climate and Energy Policy Framework will be lost.

这件作品first appearedon blog of Bruegel

Simone TagliaPietr.

Visiting Fellow at Bruegel

Simone TagliaPietr.is a visiting fellow at Bruegel. He is Senior Researcher at the Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei in Milan and Visiting Researcher at the Istanbul Policy Centre at Sabanci University in Istanbul. He is an expert in international energy issues, with a record of several publications covering the international natural gas markets, the EU energy policy and the Euro-Mediterranean energy relations, with a particular focus on Turkey.

    Georg Zachmann.

    Research Fellow at Buregel

    Georg Zachmann是Bruegel的研究员。他也是乌克兰德国咨询小组的成员,以及白俄罗斯和摩尔多瓦的德国经济团队。在此之前,他在德国财政部和德国柏林经济研究所工作。

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