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删除偏向现状 - 第3部分

The ability to change minds and persuade people of the need to do something is essential for business. Yet, when it comes to the mechanics of persuasion, a lot of people find it difficult to do.

宾夕法尼亚大学的沃顿省沃顿学校的营销教授乔纳伯格已经写了一本名为催化剂,如何改变任何人的思想, which describes the psychology behind the art of persuasion and some of the tools that can help to overcome people’s resistance to change. Today we share the third tool of persuasion. You can find第一部分and第二部分here.

Berger explains people’s biases toward their own ideas versus other people’s ideas.

第三个关键洞察力是为了缓解禀赋。试图改变人们的思想时,人们已经附加了他们已经做的事情,他们已经拥有的想法,他们已经使用的产品,他们已经使用过的服务。

Think about ideas, for example. People love ideas they came up with, and they hate ideas other people came up with. Even if other people might have had the same ideas as them, if it’s their idea, they tend to like it more.

We Are Attached to the Things We Have Already

例如,房主:他们住在家中的时间越长,而且它们的重视越多,即使它高于市场价格。人们附加到他们拥有的东西。人们一次又一次地购买相同的产品,并再次使用相同的服务。

At the office, we tend to stick with projects we have already funded and initiatives we’re already engaging in, and we’re loathe to start new ones, all because we’re attached to the things we’re doing already. To get people to switch, to get people to change, to get them to do something new, we need to ease endowment.

这样做的一种方法是让人们意识到现状不是无成本的。

人们经常认为他们已经做了什么安全。这不是风险。这很容易。因为那,他们坚持下去。但通常情况似乎没有像似乎的成本一样成本。

Often, things may seem like they’re cheap or easy to do, but they’re not as easy as one might think. There’s a great study that was done on injuries, for example, where they ask people, “Hey, what do you think hurts more: a minor injury or a major one? Spraining your finger, or tweaking your ankle or knee. Or breaking your finger or breaking your knee?” Now, if you think about major injuries and minor injuries, it seems obvious. Of course, those major injuries are going to be more painful. Breaking your kneecap is much more painful than spraining your knee or something along those lines.

但事实证明,相反是真的。事实证明,轻微伤害往往会导致更多的痛苦。

Berger解释了为什么人们倾向于忽视“轻微伤害” - 以及这样做的成本。

每当我的堂兄写一封电子邮件时,他会在底部输入“问候,查尔斯”的话。我说,“每次写电子邮件时,它需要几秒钟才能撰写”问候查尔斯“。你为什么不包括在你的电子邮件签名中包含它?“

他说,“我不知道如何添加一个电子邮件signature. And it only takes a couple seconds. It’s not a big deal, right?” To him, writing that email signature was a minor injury, not a major one. It was below the threshold of needing to be fixed. So how could I get him to change? It was only a couple of seconds each time and for him figuring out how to do an email signature took a lot longer.

So instead, I took a different approach. I highlighted the cost of the action. I said, “Charles, how many emails then do you write every week?” And he said, “I don’t know, probably 300 or 400.” And I said, “So if it takes you three or four seconds each time to write your signature, how much time are you spending each week writing email signatures?”

He thought about it for a minute, and then opened up the search bar and typed in how to automate an email signature. Highlighting the cost of an action makes people realize that something might seem like a minor injury, the status quo might seem safe or costless, but it’s not.

Everyone Has a Status-Quo Bias

And the reason why is that we fix major injuries. When there’s a big problem when we break our finger, we don’t just sit there. We go to the doctor, we have it set, we put on potentially a cast, same with other major injuries. But when we have a minor injury, when something’s not that bad, we don’t do the work to fix it.

状态QUO偏见也是如此。如果有些东西是可怕的,人们就会前进,他们修复它。但如果它只是好的话,如果它不好,人们就不要做工作来改变它。如果它不太好,他们倾向于坚持这样做。这是一个轻微的伤害。所以他们不做努力改变它。

By making people realize that something isn’t just a minor injury, it’s a major one, it’s not just OK, but it really is problematic. They’ll be much more likely to take the effort to make a change.

Jonah Berger

宾夕法尼亚大学沃顿省沃顿学院的营销教授 @J1BERGER.

Jonah Berger is marketing professor at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania and the best-selling author of several books, including Contagious, Invisible Influence and his latest,The Catalyst.

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