The Edge of Risk Menu Search
New thinking on corporate risk and resilience in the global economy.

Quick Takes


Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

Foreign aid rose to an all-time high of $161.2 billion last year, a 3.5% increase from 2019. In many cases, larger economies directed these funds to countries in need of significant help to respond to the short-term impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic,according tothe OECD.


Internationally, governments approved $16 trillion worth of COVID-19 stimulus measures, but only 1% was used to help developing countries handle the virus. Trade, foreign direct investment and remittances in developing countries have also declined as a result of the pandemic, intensifying their need for support.

Why Are Central Banks Creating Digital Currencies?

Source: Atlantic Council

19个国家已经开始以有限数量的参与者在小规模上测试中央银行数字货币(CBDC)。大西洋理事会defines CBDCas “the digital form of a country’s fiat currency that is also a claim on the central bank.”

截至今天,中国人民银行(PBOC)和欧洲央行(欧洲央行)是prominent playersin the digital currency realm. The United States currently落后in the research phase, yet the Federal Reserve has expressed continued interest in thedigital dollar.

As digital currencies expand globally, there are challenges ahead — thelegal, political and regulatory properties of CBDCs remain unclear. But theIMF注意事项that there are also multiple benefits to having government involvement in digital currencies, including lower cash transfer costs, greater accessibility to banking services and easier implementation of monetary policies.


Source: World Bank

在2021年第一季度,大多数全球商品价格均高于其前大流行水平。预计金属价格将继续上升趋势,在2021年期间升级30%,according tothe World Bank. This jump incommodity prices相似于全球经济活动的兴起,刺激账单的影响和供给因素的变化。

The crude oil industry saw a record-fast recovery after aprice and demand collapsein 2020. The predicted average cost of crude oil for this year is $56 per barrel — about one-third higher than its cost in 2020. Natural gas prices also rose by one-third as a result of increased demand during the winter season.

The World Bank预计价格水平将“全年全球经济反弹和改善增长前景的全年持近当前水平。”该报告指出,所有商品市场严重依赖于大流行的经济影响持续多长时间以及政府管理风险的程度。

COVID-19 Threatens Press Freedom Across the World


Note: White represents “Good Situation,” yellow represents “Satisfactory Situation,” orange represents “Problematic Situation,” red represents “Difficult Situation” and black represents “Very Serious Situation.”

Journalistic efforts were completely blocked or severely disrupted in 73% of the 180 countries analyzed in the 2021World Press Freedom Index. Last year, only 7% had a “favorable environment for journalists,” compared to 8% of the countries in 2019.

“The coronavirus pandemic has been used as grounds to block journalists’ access to information sources and reporting in the field,” the report notes. The largest drop in ranking was Malaysia — down 18 places at 119 — as a result of increased censorship. Countries in Asia, the Middle East and Africa ranked the lowest due to internet censorship, surveillance and propaganda — especially in China, which ranked 177th.

Norway ranked first in the index, followed by Finland and Sweden. Europe and the Americas remain the most favorable continents for press freedom, despite “abuses” and “violations” against press freedom increasing. At the same time, the public is putting an increasing amount of trust in business, as opposed to media, along with expectations for social leadership, according to Edelman’s latestTrust Barometer.

Climate Risk Costs Increased by $60 Billion in 40 Years


Note: Climate disasters refer to droughts, floods, freezes, winter storms, severe storms, tropical cyclones and wildfires costing at least $1 billion each

Climate disasters in the United States have accounted for over $1.8 trillion in economic costs since 1980. The country has endured over 285 climate-related catastrophes in the past 41 years that cost at least $1 billion each,according toBrookings Institute. These disasters are becoming more frequent and intense: In the 2010s alone, they cost $81 billion per year — up from $18 billion per year in the 1980s.


Brookings laid out a three-part framework for the federal government to address urgent climate risks: measuring infrastructure needs, modernizing physical assets and experimenting with new technologies. And President Joe Biden recently released a$2 trillion planfor improving基础设施在未来八年内转向绿色能量。

边缘的日常通讯提供关于企业风险和弹性的新思路。 Subscribe