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我们与地球的关系正在减缓人类发展

Director of the Human Development Report Office at United Nations Development Program

每年,联合国地标的释放人类发展指数紧随其后的是世界各地政府。

This year, for the first time, the index has been adjusted to assess the pressures that every country is placing on the planet and its resources, as well as tracking more traditional indicators of human development, such as education and health.

BRINK spoke to the lead author of this year’s index,Pedro Conceição, who explains how the index is incorporating these so-called planetary pressures.

Conceição:HDI的目的是评估社会的进度,而不仅仅是经济扩展的速度,它使用像GDP这样的指标,而且还通过考虑健康和获得教育等绩效更好地捕捉人类发展的更广泛的概念。

This also includes being able to participate in civil society and political participation. It presents a broad perspective on how to assess and measure the performance of countries over time.

For the first time, we are placing the need to reduce the pressures on the planet alongside the goal of expanding human development. We are confronting a new reality in the history of humanity and the planet in which our activity is creating a new generation of risks that is curtailing human development for many today and will continue to do so for everyone in the future.

Tracking Planetary Pressures

Covid-19可能是这些行星压力的一个例子,因为它很可能是从动物跳到人类的病毒的结果。我们知道这些新的动物园疾病有所增加,这与我们穿上地球的压力有关,通过土地利用变化,生物多样性丧失等等。

我们经常将气候变化视为生物多样性和从动物园疾病的单独问题。但是,如果我们回来的话,很明显,他们都在这种由人类选择驱动的行星变化的更广泛的过程中。

边缘:What metrics do you use to measure these pressures on the planet?

All life needs energy and materials. So the two indicators that we use for planetary pressures are carbon dioxide emissions and what we call material footprint, which is the consumption of materials across the supply chain in different countries. We measure each of these on a per capita basis.

顶层没有国家

边缘:When you apply those metrics, how does it change the index?

Conceição:我们所看到的是,有各国实现了非常高的人类发展,但这也在地球上的压力比其他国家更为努力。并且存在低人类发展的国家,行星压力的调整趋于非常小。

When you add in the planetary pressures, there’s a reassortment of countries. So countries like Costa Rica, for instance, improved quite a lot, because they already scored relatively highly in the Human Development Index and have taken steps over time that have reduced planetary pressures.

在另一边,您看到具有非常高的材料足迹或非常高的二氧化碳排放和非常高的人类发展的国家,这些国家往往会在排名中陷入困境。事实上,超过50个国家辍学了很高的人类发展组织,反映了他们对化石燃料和物质足迹的依赖。

我们看到,在国家,往往被边缘化或遭受剥夺的群体可能会受到行星压力影响的影响。

如果您将人类发展指数视为二维空间,则希望向您具有高人类发展和低行星压力的空间移动。这是目前是空的空间。这是一个空的盒子。

在运动中,您有一系列团队和第二层。在这种情况下,您可以对第二层进行排名,但第一层中没有人。这就是我们想要强调的重点。

Connection Between Planetary Pressures and Social Vulnerability

边缘:在报告中,您可以在行星压力和社交漏洞之间建立联系。你能解释一下吗?

conceição:这是一个非常重要的一点。我们看到,在国家,往往被边缘化或遭受剥夺的群体可能会受到行星压力影响的影响。

For instance, in the West, it’s well-documented that the impact of pollution affects significantly more non-white Hispanic, Black and African American people than white people.

边缘:商业活动产生了许多这些材料产品,并发出了大量碳。业务如何帮助减少这些行星压力?

conceição:I see a change in part being driven by investors. There’s a big movement, as I’m sure you know, on environmental, social and governance indicators. We also document in the report this growing interest in green financing. Central banks are becoming more interested in understanding climate risks, and there’s a movement to go toward documented exposure to climate risks in financial disclosure statements.

但我相信,这是一个人不够。监管机构和政府有一个重要的作用。作为曾经是英格兰银行州长的马克卡尼,现在是我们秘书金顾问的气候融资顾问说,气候变化将重新报告一切。它将重新记录风险。

Climate Change Is Repricing All Risks

There’s a lot that can be done by giving the right price signals, and, more importantly, removing subsidies, for instance, for use of fossil fuels. The full costs of fossil fuel subsidies to societies are estimated by the IMF to be as much as $5 trillion a year.

These are big numbers. There’s a lot to be done at the level of correcting prices that can move the market toward relieving some of these planetary pressures.

There are two other business aspects that are important. One is social norms. What drives people’s behavior is not only economic interest; people also react to norms in society. And this can be very powerful in changing behavior. We see, for instance, what has happened when it comes to tobacco use.

另一方面是我们称之为基于自然的人类发展,这是关于看自然和自然保护作为商业机会。因此,围绕蓝色经济讨论,例如,借鉴保护海洋的经济潜力,变得越来越相关。

它并不是看起来像一个不允许你建造道路或桥梁或机场的制约 - 它正在寻找生态系统的保护,这是为人们提供福利福利的东西,以及经济机会。

Pedro Conceição

Director of the Human Development Report Office at United Nations Development Program @pedrotconceoia

Pedro Conceição is the director of the human development report office at theUnited Nations Development Program。在此之前,他是政策和方案支助局局和非洲区域局战略咨询单位的战略政策主任。

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