我们与地球的关系正在减缓人类发展Director of the Human Development Report Office at United Nations Development Program
This year, for the first time, the index has been adjusted to assess the pressures that every country is placing on the planet and its resources, as well as tracking more traditional indicators of human development, such as education and health.
BRINK spoke to the lead author of this year’s index,Pedro Conceição, who explains how the index is incorporating these so-called planetary pressures.
This also includes being able to participate in civil society and political participation. It presents a broad perspective on how to assess and measure the performance of countries over time.
For the first time, we are placing the need to reduce the pressures on the planet alongside the goal of expanding human development. We are confronting a new reality in the history of humanity and the planet in which our activity is creating a new generation of risks that is curtailing human development for many today and will continue to do so for everyone in the future.
Tracking Planetary Pressures
边缘：What metrics do you use to measure these pressures on the planet?
All life needs energy and materials. So the two indicators that we use for planetary pressures are carbon dioxide emissions and what we call material footprint, which is the consumption of materials across the supply chain in different countries. We measure each of these on a per capita basis.
边缘：When you apply those metrics, how does it change the index?
When you add in the planetary pressures, there’s a reassortment of countries. So countries like Costa Rica, for instance, improved quite a lot, because they already scored relatively highly in the Human Development Index and have taken steps over time that have reduced planetary pressures.
Connection Between Planetary Pressures and Social Vulnerability
For instance, in the West, it’s well-documented that the impact of pollution affects significantly more non-white Hispanic, Black and African American people than white people.
conceição：I see a change in part being driven by investors. There’s a big movement, as I’m sure you know, on environmental, social and governance indicators. We also document in the report this growing interest in green financing. Central banks are becoming more interested in understanding climate risks, and there’s a movement to go toward documented exposure to climate risks in financial disclosure statements.
Climate Change Is Repricing All Risks
There’s a lot that can be done by giving the right price signals, and, more importantly, removing subsidies, for instance, for use of fossil fuels. The full costs of fossil fuel subsidies to societies are estimated by the IMF to be as much as $5 trillion a year.
These are big numbers. There’s a lot to be done at the level of correcting prices that can move the market toward relieving some of these planetary pressures.
There are two other business aspects that are important. One is social norms. What drives people’s behavior is not only economic interest; people also react to norms in society. And this can be very powerful in changing behavior. We see, for instance, what has happened when it comes to tobacco use.
它并不是看起来像一个不允许你建造道路或桥梁或机场的制约 - 它正在寻找生态系统的保护，这是为人们提供福利福利的东西，以及经济机会。