这Edge of Risk 菜单 搜索
关于全球经济的企业风险与恢复力的新思考。
Economy

Moving Beyond CSR: The Rise of the Fourth Sector in Business

Yvon Chouinard, the founder of Patagonia, is not an archetypal corporate CEO. He had no ambition to be wealthy, or even to be involved in business. But in 2017 Mr. Chouinard made the福布斯billionaire list — and he is indeed a businessman, a highly successful one.

At age eighty, Mr. Chouinard still objects to the classification. As he writes in his book让我的人去冲浪:一个不情愿的商人的教育,“我做生意已经快六十年了。我很难说出这些话,就像有人承认自己是个酒鬼或律师一样。我从来都不尊重这个职业。商业必须承担大部分责任,因为它是自然的敌人。”

Chouinard先生今天是一系列特殊的商业领袖:在共同价值的思想围绕着构建的某种业务的先驱。

What Is Shared Value?

哈佛商学院教授迈克尔·波特(MichaelPorter)和马克·R。克莱默。其理念是,企业必须专注于创造价值,不仅是为股东,也为员工、所在社区、整个社会,而且通常是为特定的事业或重点领域。

这concept of shared value runs counter to the long-standing view of hard-core economic rationalists, that the fundamental purpose of a corporation is to benefit shareholders. It also goes beyond the idea that corporate value is measured primarily by ever-increasing growth in financial return.

Patagonia is not typical, but it does represent a new type of business: neither purely for-profit, nor purely not-for-profit, but rather a blend. The World Economic Forum calls this emerging kind of entity, which is neither a for-profit business, nor a nonprofit organization, nor a government, the “fourth sector.”

这concept of shared value — even with its challenges — can define the future of capitalism if we as consumers, employees and voters make it so. In years to come, companies will, of course, still do their best to make profits, but they may be able to do so with a new ethos that goes beyond the laws and rules that regulate industrial and business practices today.

获得社会经营许可证

法律禁止一项业务,例如,在河里雇用儿童或倾销有毒化学品。但政府法规只是企业需要注意的一系列参数之一。他们还需要通过受益员工,社区和社会获得“社会许可证”来运营。如果公司未能这样做,则可能被迫改善或受到惩罚,甚至被丢弃。

像Patagonia这样的公司享有一些使仿真变得困难的优势。首先,巴塔哥尼亚是一家私营公司,由Chouinard先生本人全资拥有。他对自己的缘故的增长不感兴趣,并且不必回答华尔街分析师和股东,他们几乎肯定会推动公司以获得更大的回报。巴塔哥尼亚还在利基市场运营并销售高利润产品,因此有重大利润来投资其社会原因。

但这些公司的成功展示了社会良好的重要性是如何对今天的消费者 - 特别是年轻人。Consumers care deeply如果一个品牌以爱护员工而闻名,或者是一个尽责的环境管理者。188bet滚球投注

尼尔森的2015年的企业公民调查显示,66%的消费者和73%的千禧一代表示,他们愿意为一家以可持续发展著称的公司的产品支付更多的费用。

大型公开交易公司深入了解这一趋势,并寻求宣告他们对社会良好的承诺。这治理与问责机关报告称,2017年,标准普尔500指数中85%的公司发表了某种声明,旨在展示公司的环境管理和社会承诺。就在五年前,只有20%的公司发布了这样的报告。188bet滚球投注

在一个时代,当人才比以往任何时候都不重要,那些不转变为第四个行业企业的公司可能会发现竞争更难和更难。

Lack of Standardized Oversight

This virtuous cycle — activists calling out bad behavior, consumers pushing up the norms of good corporate behavior, and good corporate citizens realizing that behaving well is actually better for business — is what will ultimately lead corporations toward a kind of shared-value business.

Still, there is a long way to go. Though consumers care more about whether the brands they use are ethical, the lack of standardized oversight and metrics to measure how much good a company actually does still makes it relatively easy to reap the benefits of appearing to do good without actually following up on promises. What’s more, there remain plenty of major corporations focused primarily on, or only on, shareholder value.

在一个时代,人才比以往任何时候都更重要,millennials — who tell pollsters they prioritize purpose in their careers more than their elders do — make up more than half the U.S. workforce, companies that don’t transition into fourth-sector businesses are likely to find it harder and harder to compete. Not only do millennials not want to buy from brands that don’t have a social mission, they don’t want to work for companies that don’t have a social mission.

市场机制正在转变援助

企业越来越具有社会责任感的一个后果是,它们越来越多地进入发展部门,将市场机制应用于传统的援助工作,以取得更好的成果。

杰希尔·奥利弗(Jehiel Oliver)是一位美国人,最初在美国从事投资银行业务,但很快就厌倦了。他了解到,尼日利亚拥有世界上最大的未开垦土地库存,尼日利亚大多数穷人靠自给自足的农业维持生计。他们用手工工具耕作和播种,因为他们买不起拖拉机。另一方面,也有一些农民拥有拖拉机,但并不全天候使用。他们可能仍在偿还用于购买汽车的贷款,这降低了他们的盈利能力。此外,还有一些企业管理租赁拖拉机的车队,他们需要更好的管理工具来增加拖拉机的使用量和减少闲置时间。

因此在2014年,奥利弗开发了一款基于Uber模式的应用程序,但它并没有安排乘车时间,而是实现了拖拉机共享。如今,在尼日利亚销售的所有新拖拉机中,有四分之三使用了他的技术,该公司已扩展到五个非洲国家。这是创新和充满活力的社会企业家创办的此类社会企业激增的一个例子,旨在为解决世界上最紧迫的问题作出贡献。

这y may be nonprofit or for-profit, but they all use market mechanisms and new technologies like remote sensing and artificial intelligence.

Importance of Data

从传统商业模式转变为有影响力的商业模式需要什么?数据。公司必须有能力衡量其对环境、社会和治理的影响并进行报告。188bet滚球投注

他们可以同意使用标准指标,例如由此开发的标准指标Global Reporting Initiative是国际标准组织。其指标由企业和政府用于评估和报告与气候变化,人权,治理和社会福祉等问题有关的活动。

Today, 93% of the biggest 250 corporations in the world report on their sustainability, and 43% report on how their corporate responsibility activities advance the Sustainable Development Goals.

配备这种信息和数据一致性,以及透明度,人们将能够评估公司及其社会良好的记录。他们将能够做出关于购买哪些产品的聪明决定,这些公司要投资,以及哪些社会企业支持。

Raj Kumar.

President of Devex

Raj Kumar是一家新闻网站的成立总统兼编辑,涵盖全球发展。他是新书的作者改变世界的事业:亿万富翁、技术颠覆者和社会企业家如何改变全球援助行业。这book was selected by the World Economic Forum as its book-of-the-month for June 2019.

    BRINK’s daily newsletter offers new thinking on corporate risk and resilience. Subscribe