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经济

超越CSR:业务中第四部门的崛起

Batagonia的创始人Yvon Chouinard不是Archetypal Corporate Ceo。他没有富有富裕的野心,甚至甚至要参与业务。但是在2017年,Chouinard先生制作了福布斯亿万富翁列表 - 他确实是一个商人,一个非常成功的商人。

在八十年代,Chouinard先生仍然是对象的分类。当他写在他的书中让我的人去冲浪:一个不情愿的商人的教育,“我做生意已经快六十年了。我很难说出这些话,就像有人承认自己是个酒鬼或律师一样。我从来都不尊重这个职业。商业必须承担大部分责任,因为它是自然的敌人。”

Mr. Chouinard is a special type of business leader today: a pioneer of a certain kind of business built around the idea of shared value.

什么是共享价值?

哈佛商学院教授迈克尔•波特和马克•R•克莱默于2011年首次提出了共享价值的概念,而不是股东价值。其理念是,企业必须专注于创造价值,不仅是为股东,也为员工、所在社区、整个社会,而且通常是为特定的事业或重点领域。

共享价值背道而驰的概念ng-standing view of hard-core economic rationalists, that the fundamental purpose of a corporation is to benefit shareholders. It also goes beyond the idea that corporate value is measured primarily by ever-increasing growth in financial return.

巴塔哥尼亚不是典型的,但它确实代表了一种新的业务:既不是纯粹的利润,也不是纯粹的不营利,而是融合。世界经济论坛称这种新兴的实体,这既不是营利性的业务,也不是非营利组织,也不是政府,“第四个部门”。

共同价值的概念 - 即使有其挑战 - 如果我们作为消费者,员工和选民使资本主义的未来可以定义。当然,公司将仍然尽最大努力赚取利润,但他们可以通过新的精神讨论,超越今天的法律和规则的法律和规则。

获得社会经营许可证

A business is prohibited by law, for example, from employing children or dumping toxic chemicals in the river. But government regulations are only one of a set of parameters that businesses need to pay attention to. They also need to earn their “social license” to operate, by benefiting employees, community and society. If the company fails to do so, it can be compelled to improve, or be punished, or even be put out of business.

Companies like Patagonia enjoy some advantages that make emulation difficult. First, Patagonia is a private company, wholly owned by Mr. Chouinard himself. He is not interested in growth for its own sake and does not have to answer to Wall Street analysts and shareholders, who would almost certainly push the company for ever-larger returns. Patagonia also operates in a niche market and sells high-margin products, so it has significant profit to invest in its social causes.

But the success of these kinds of companies demonstrates just how important social good is to today’s consumers — especially younger ones.消费者深深地关心如果一个品牌以爱护员工而闻名,或者是一个尽责的环境管理者。188bet滚球投注

Nielsen’s2015年的企业公民调查显示,66%的消费者和73%的千禧一代表示,他们愿意为一家以可持续发展著称的公司的产品支付更多的费用。

Big, publicly traded companies are well-aware of this trend and seek to proclaim their commitments to social good. TheGovernance & Accountability Institute报告称,2017年,标准普尔500指数中85%的公司发表了某种声明,旨在展示公司的环境管理和社会承诺。就在五年前,只有20%的公司发布了这样的报告。188bet滚球投注

In an era when talent matters more than ever, companies that don’t transition into fourth-sector businesses are likely to find it harder and harder to compete.

缺乏标准化监督

这种良性循环 - 激动人员呼唤不良行为,消费者推出了良好的企业行为的规范,而且良好的企业公民意识到表现良好的业绩实际上是更好的业务 - 是最终将导致企业朝着一种共享企业领导公司。

不过,还有很长的路要走。虽然消费者关心他们使用的品牌是否是道德的,但缺乏标准化的监督和指标,以衡量公司实际上仍然有多少良好的效果,而且在没有实际跟进承诺的情况下,在没有实际跟进承诺的情况下出现良好的好处会相对容易。更重要的是,仍有大量的主要公司主要专注于股东价值。

In an era when talent matters more than ever, and millennials — who tell pollsters they prioritize purpose in their careers more than their elders do — make up more than half the U.S. workforce, companies that don’t transition into fourth-sector businesses are likely to find it harder and harder to compete. Not only do millennials not want to buy from brands that don’t have a social mission, they don’t want to work for companies that don’t have a social mission.

Market Mechanisms Are Transforming Aid

企业越来越具有社会责任感的一个后果是,它们越来越多地进入发展部门,将市场机制应用于传统的援助工作,以取得更好的成果。

杰希尔·奥利弗(Jehiel Oliver)是一位美国人,最初在美国从事投资银行业务,但很快就厌倦了。他了解到,尼日利亚拥有世界上最大的未开垦土地库存,尼日利亚大多数穷人靠自给自足的农业维持生计。他们用手工工具耕作和播种,因为他们买不起拖拉机。另一方面,也有一些农民拥有拖拉机,但并不全天候使用。他们可能仍在偿还用于购买汽车的贷款,这降低了他们的盈利能力。此外,还有一些企业管理租赁拖拉机的车队,他们需要更好的管理工具来增加拖拉机的使用量和减少闲置时间。

因此在2014年,奥利弗开发了一款基于Uber模式的应用程序,但它并没有安排乘车时间,而是实现了拖拉机共享。如今,在尼日利亚销售的所有新拖拉机中,有四分之三使用了他的技术,该公司已扩展到五个非洲国家。这是创新和充满活力的社会企业家创办的此类社会企业激增的一个例子,旨在为解决世界上最紧迫的问题作出贡献。

他们可能是非营利的或营利性,但它们都使用市场机制和新技术,如遥感和人工智能。

数据的重要性

从传统商业模式转变为有影响力的商业模式需要什么?数据。公司必须有能力衡量其对环境、社会和治理的影响并进行报告。188bet滚球投注

They can agree to use standard metrics, such as those developed by the全球报告倡议, an international standards organization. Its metrics are used by businesses and governments to assess and report on activities related to such issues as climate change, human rights, governance and social well-being.

今天,世界上最大的250家公司的93%关于他们的可持续性报告,以及43%的关于他们的企业责任活动如何推进可持续发展目标的报告。

Equipped with this kind of information and consistency of data, along with transparency, people will be able to evaluate companies and their records on social good. They’ll be able to make smart decisions about which products to purchase, which companies to invest in, and which social enterprises to support.

Raj Kumar

Devex总裁

Raj Kumar is the founding president and editor-in-chief of Devex, a news website covering global development. He is the author of the new book改变世界的事业:亿万富翁、技术颠覆者和社会企业家如何改变全球援助行业。这本书由世界经济论坛选择为2019年6月作为本月的月份。

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