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Ensuring Biden’s Infrastructure Plan Accounts for Climate Risks — and Saves Money

由Joseph Biden总统领导的美国政府正在提议massive infrastructure plan更换国家摇摇欲坠的桥梁,道路和其他关键结构。但要使这些投资偿还,美国将需要设计,以忍受不断变化的气候。

大多数美国基础设施都设计成几十年,包括通过哪些工程师预期罕见的风暴和洪水。

However, extreme storms that were considered rare a few decades years ago are already becoming more common.Hurricane Harveyin 2017 was the Houston area’s第三“500年洪水”in three years, and it was followed by two more major flooding events.

今天的建筑基础设施将足够强大,无法管理国家可能看到一个世纪的极端情景可能是昂贵的。但是,如果基础设施被设计为满足较短的需求,并且在未来的气候之后也很容易调整?

Methods surrounding infrastructure design in the Netherlands — where dams and storm surge barriers are being designed to be adaptable — hold lessons for the U.S. as it prepares for a wave of new construction.

建设100年洪水的问题

美国的桥梁通常是旨在允许洪水的畅通无阻的通过1-in-100 chance每年发生。同样,可能会建造一个大坝溢洪道以处理10,000年的洪水,雨水排水管为期两年的降雨事件。

These “return periods” are traditionally calculated使用方法基于历史统计,假设气候不会变化。

在温暖的气候下,暴雨更加极端,干旱萎缩和海平面上升,这些历史统计数据可以underestimate the intensity未来洪水这将关键的基础设施,家园和生活中的危险性。

将自适应设计付诸实施

The Dutch are masters of flood control. When大约三分之一一个国家坐落在海平面以下,它成为必需品。美国工程师转向他们近年来建议作为对气候变化的理解及其对风暴和海平面上升的影响增加。

荷兰的创新设计,就像巨型盖茨一样Maeslant防洪,被注意到,但同样重要的是荷兰语如何使用自适应设计来为未来做好准备,并保持控制的成本。

在工作中看到自适应设计,看看Afsluitdijk正在进行翻新, a 20-mile-long dam that protects Amsterdam’s port from storm surges on the North Sea. When the dam was completed in 1932, it drained river water to the sea by gravity at low tide. However, sea level rise, combined with the need to keep the water level in Amsterdam’s port low to protect the city, are making drainage by gravity alone increasingly ineffective.

通过使用自适应设计技术来管理气候风险,基础设施将更具成本效益,以面对不确定的未来。

To update the dam, the Dutch have built pump stations for draining water into the North Sea. Importantly, the new design reserves enough land to expand the existing pump stations or build new oneswhen future storms and sea level rise做必要

Lessons As the U.S. Plans New Coastal Protections

Several U.S. cities, including休斯顿,New York波士顿, are now considering hurricane defense systems — the future protection they willactually needto prevent flooding在这个poi是未知nt.

通过使用自适应设计,它们可以包括将这些防御的空间作为气候变化。

这可能意味着建立土坝和堤坝足够宽,以便在必要时提高它们,并保留用于扩大和加强沿海沙丘的土地,形成系统的一部分和添加泵基础设施。

Crucially, movable storm surge barriers, which typically make up a short section of a barrier system, offer protection only from sporadic hurricanes and not from long-term sea level rise. The movable barriers may eventually need to be replaced with a dam, shipping lock and drainage pumps — that, too, can be planned for.

通过从自适应设计开始,美国可以节省数十亿美元,而必须在路上建立新系统。最近加利福尼亚州Folsom Dam的装修,建于1955年,说明了成本。一个新溢洪道completed in 2018 cost $900 million — with inflation, that’s about the original cost of the entire dam.

适应密西西比河洪水

当荷兰工程师计划新堤坝时,风暴浪涌障碍和河流锁,他们考虑what are known asthe Delta Scenarios— four possible futures for flood risk and sea level rise, ranging from moderate to extreme global warming. These scenarios create a framework for adaptive design.

For example, a complex of locks on the Meuse River, used to raise and lower ships and barges as they travel up- or downstream, needs to bereplaced or rehabilitated。一个new lock complex must have enough sluice gates, which can be closed or opened to allow high water through after storms, so the water doesn’t flood surrounding farms and cities. The accompanying weir — the low dam that raises the river’s level — must be high enough to retain enough water for ship operations during times of drought.

建立一个高大的堰,有许多水闸盖茨,并筹集河岸堤,允许锁定复合体来管理未来的气候情景,但这将是昂贵的。通过自适应设计,可以在以后容易地修改该复合物以满足不断变化的气候需求。这包括额外的闸门闸门和设计闸门的预留空间,这些门可以根据需要焊接在附加部件上更高。

On the Mississippi River and its tributaries, many of the old lock complexes that raise and lower the barges carrying agricultural products and industrial materials are now正在接受替代品。使用类似的自适应设计技术将是一种面对不确定的未来的经济型方式。

这件作品最初发表在谈话

Jeremy Bilker.

密歇根大学公民和环境工程副教授188bet滚球投注

Jeremy Bilker是密歇根大学的民用和环境工程副教授。188bet滚球投注他是一个液压和沿海工程师。他利用液压实验室实验,数值模拟和事件后现场调查,调查暴露于由于气候变化而导致的危险因危险而造成的城市的抵御能力,由于沿海和普通地区的发展扩大,越来越多的后果。

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