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COVID-19 Is Disrupting the Lives of Migrant Workers

A BRINK interview with

Covid-19大流行使世界各地数百万工人的生活颠倒了,但对于农民工是特别破坏的。成千上万的人不得不回到原籍国,经常接受敌对的招待会,以创造对经济的额外菌株并导致对Covid-19感染的恐惧。

The国际劳工组织追踪世界各地的农民工。Brink与Michelle Leighton发表谈话,他将国际劳工组织的工作指导劳动迁移和移动性,并通过询问Covid-19如何影响全球迁移模式来开始对话。

Leighton:在大流行之前,世界上有16400万个农民工,其中几乎有一半的女性。甚至在此之前,他们正在经历高水平的歧视。他们经常处于高度临时的工作,并且在非正式部门,有时在国内工作中未被该国或国际劳工标准涵盖的国内工作。农民工习惯性地面临歧视和不平等的治疗,经常收到低薪,有时低于最低工资为国民设定,在许多情况下,他们缺乏社会保护。这些是问题,我认为说是公平的,这已经困扰了一些数十年的移民治理制度。

Huge Numbers of Returning Migrant Workers

Leighton:当危机袭击和大流行导致锁定时,它暴露了这些治理结构的缺陷,并加剧了对移徙工人的影响。许多移民工人居住在长度拥挤的工作地点,从而开始,并且无法提供任何类型的社会偏移或免受曝光的保护。

There’ve been a high level of forced repatriations from many countries, as well as those who returned voluntarily before the borders locked down. Nepal, which has 2.5 million workers in India, saw 500,000 workers return from India, while the Indian government is engaging in one of the largest repatriation efforts ever, bringing back over 100,000 Indian workers from different regions through flights, while many more have returned on their own. In Ethiopia, many have returned, with thousands more waiting in detention centers, and there are expectations that 200,000 or more could be forcibly returned by the year’s end.

BRINK:这挑战对不得不重新吸收自己的国籍的国家是什么?

LEIGHTON: Well, it creates quite significant impacts to states that already had quite fragile labor markets, and are now experiencing higher levels of unemployment. These countries will face real challenges in creating employment opportunities for all nationals.

A number of countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh, fear that by the end of the fall, they’re going to see hundreds of thousands more returnees who have lost their jobs in the Gulf or in other Asian countries as borders ease.

大流行对迁移模式的影响

BRINK:Do you think that the pandemic and the recession will fundamentally change migration patterns?

Leighton:近年来,移民走廊遭受了大量的流动工人,特别是从亚洲到海湾国家的速度。我们还看到从非洲国家转向鸿沟的高位数。

At the end of May, ILO reported that about 305 million full-time job equivalents would be lost by the second quarter of the year. Will those jobs come back for those migrant workers who’ve returned home? Will they really be able to go out again? It’s uncertain because the question is whether the businesses and the demand will come back and how rapidly it will come back.

我不怀疑迁移将来会在未来继续高水平,因为它一直在增加,但它可能不会像许多人一样迅速发生。我们很可能会看到汇款持续减少汇款。

Building Back Better

BRINK:你是否看到任何可能帮助移民的动荡的银衬里?有没有任何可能出现的颠倒?

LEIGHTON: Well, we hope, of course, that there will be an upside, and that when recovery begins — and it already is starting in some countries — that countries use the opportunity to build back better. That certainly is the model the UN hopes to promote.

这是一个真正的时刻,可以看出可以帮助各国重建在原产国的各种系统,而国际劳工组织正在帮助各国审查如何为体面的工作创造积极的环境。188bet滚球投注

现在是看失败的机构和治理框架的缺陷的时刻,并尝试在真正的那种系统中真正重新调整。一个例子是Kafala系统,where migrant workers are tied to their employers, prevented from changing jobs and requiring their employers to attest for exit visas, in addition to other restrictions on migrant workers’ rights. Allowing migrant workers to change employers, for example, would give them the flexibility to find work in other sectors and other areas. And that may help businesses in those countries to recover, but also help migrant workers to be documented, and not deported or sent home.

有有序和安全回报的国家之间有更多系统的合作,并为重返社会提供支持。因此,这是一个真正的时刻,看看可以帮助各国重建在原籍国的各种系统,而国际劳工组织正在帮助各国审查如何为体面的工作创造积极的环境。188bet滚球投注

The Systems Aren’t in Place

例如,Leighton:例如,返回的人,带来技能,人才和创业知识,但他们的祖国并没有制度和机构能够认识到技能和才能,这也需要积极参与私营部门的能力和才能。

There is a need to really improve labor market information systems for all workers and for businesses to help with skills and jobs matching. For ILO, this is a bread-and-butter issue: well-functioning and inclusive labor markets, and looking at how to develop and build the skills of the national workforce, particularly looking to the future of work.

BRINK:这是技术可能用于帮助各国更好地了解所需技能以及有哪些空白的空间以及有什么空间?

Leighton:是的,技术可以帮助机构管理劳动力市场信息,收集农民工,等等。农业是国民往往不想拿那些工作的领域之一,所以拥有一个实际安全和公平的电子招聘制度,并基于国际劳工组织标准和指导方针,这可能是重要的工具。

The ILO and the World Bank have been monitoring exploitation in the recruitment process. Fair recruitment processes can help to omit labor brokers who are out there taking advantage of migrant workers, forcing them to pay sometimes tens of thousands of dollars or up to a year’s salary for their jobs.

如果危机后竞争变得更加急剧,人口贩运和强迫劳动力会有很高的风险。这是一款多亿美元的业务,如果我们无法阻止它可能会成为多元化的业务。构建用于传播更好的劳动力市场信息和将技术放入适用于电子招聘或电子签证等系统的系统可能有所帮助。如果我们这样做,请与业务合作,我们实际上可能会在更大的规模上开始攻击这个问题。

Being Part of the Discussion of the Solution

BRINK:公司如何帮助减轻这些问题的东西?您可以提供有关公司的指导吗?

Leighton:许多企业依赖移民工人,因此,从事政策对话是企业可以帮助的重要领域。当然,企业可以向农民工提供公平工资。大流行提高了非支付或向移徙工人提供了非支付或支付工资的实践和危险,有些人正在使用危机作为重新协商工人合同的一种方式。

Really ensuring good business practices, including fair recruitment, are put in place, extending social protection to migrant workers and working with the government to ensure that there’s much more systematic, measured and protective labor migration frameworks in place will all help to ensure migrant workers’ rights.

业务一直关心迁移,但它并不总是在政治过程中积极。而且我认为它需要成为成为解决方案的一部分的讨论的一部分。

Michelle Leighton

国际劳工组织劳务移民分公司

Michelle Leighton is chief of the Labour Migration Branch for the国际劳工组织,她指导办事处就劳动移民和移动性的工作,并支持与移民和难民相关的政策和计划。她在国际法,劳动力移民,人权和经济发展领域拥有专业知识。

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