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气候变化是一种健康危机。医疗保健和生命科学如何回应?

Editor’s note: For more information on the ways in which climate change is increasing health risks and costs for people and businesses worldwide, please visit Marsh McLennan’s interactiveClimate Health Threat Illustrator

气候变化也将通过更频繁和严重的破坏以及急性气候相关的危害影响健康和生命科学利益攸关方,以及由于慢性危害和持久或滞后的效果,积累了患者,能力和财政的菌株。

The health and life sciences sector is part of the problem — if the sector were a country, it would be the fifth-largest emitter of greenhouse gases on earth, mainly due to production, transport and disposal of products and services across the health supply chain. The sector is also a crucial part of the solution, with both an obligation and an opportunity to mediate the health impacts of climate change and minimize harms and inequities for patients, staff and societies.

气候是健康的威胁乘数

Mortality风险正在上升。年度与热相关的死亡可以increase ninefold在美国,大约12,000英寸在高排放场景中的2100乘2100以上超过10万。强化风暴也可能增加致命的医疗保健中断的风险,类似于2017年波多黎各面临的危险one-third由于医疗保健被扰乱或延迟,可能发生了飓风玛丽亚三个月的伤亡。

Injuries可能会增加。一些2600万在菲律宾,印度尼西亚和马来西亚的人们可能会在2045年在高排放场景中暴露在风暴潮时受伤,如珊瑚漂白削弱A.natural defenseagainst coastal erosion, storms and floods in low-lying coastal areas.

Infectious diseases可以扩展或(重新) - emerge。登革热可以蔓延到美国东南部by 2050 as mosquito transmission zones expand from the tropics. Arctic heatwaves are thawing permafrost and could revive long-dormant pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses that cause炭疽病天花或者1918年流感大流行

慢性病prevalence, related vulnerabilities and costs could increase. Longer and more severe fire seasons expose more people to smoke: The 2019 Black Summer bushfires affected80%of Australia’s population; survivors may faceincreased risks of cancer和呼吸和心脏病。健康成本占了more than half火灾的总成本。

Mental ill healthmay surge. Among太平洋岛民随着海平面上升的强制流离失所的风险,以及其中中美洲移民逃离干旱、饥饿and poverty, more than half the population exhibits signs of mental ill health —不止两倍the global period prevalence, serving as a potential glimpse into the future for other places in the world.

气候敏感的事件和趋势直接伤害健康,也是间接地通过改变充当环境,社会和经济的健康决定因素的相互依存途径。188bet滚球投注(见展览)。例如,更频繁和强烈的风暴可以造成更多的伤害(直接结果);但它们也可以通过扰乱紧急和必要的医疗保健(间接效应)来增加死亡率。

展览:气候变化直接影响健康,通过复杂的途径间接地影响健康状况

Source: Marsh McLennan

气候影响对健康范围从轻度到严重和急性对慢性的影响。野火和洪水导致身心健康的初始尖峰,随后持久的健康状况,随着时间的推移,随着时间的推移,占这些卫生保健成本和生产力丧失的大部分。曾经在时间或空间中被认为的风险和结果正在展开,并将在发达国家和发展中国家加强。

气候变化也被利用和扩大了健康和经济差异,因为最糟糕的人和地方最不能够应对。例如,老年人,穷人和人们具有预先存在的条件面临更大的死亡风险在热浪期间。温度上升和海平面威胁到热带岛屿和地区的生活和生计,破坏了他们对他们最不责任的灾难的能力。

建筑韧性

To date, the health and life sciences sector has been slow to respond — it has historically perceived impacts to be distant or uncertain and has deferred systemic changes. To reduce health risks and costs for the communities they serve, health care providers, payers, life sciences companies, employers and policymakers must ensure continuity of care during crises and prepare for changing needs for health care.

医院和其他providers必须为巨大的护理需求,挥发性的选择性护理,容量中断和成本压力做准备。他们应该投资于抵抗极端天气的基础设施,为基本资源(包括员工)产生浪涌能力,并计划在危机期间与其他利益攸关方进行有效协调。提供商还可以通过支持公共卫生措施来提高福祉和股权,设计各种服务和员工配置型号,如远程医疗,增强社区恢复力。

卫生保险公司和政府应付人士面临不可预测和无法管理的索赔和成本,加宽健康保护差距和资产波动,以暴露风险的投资。付款人需要开发产品或模型,以确保普遍获得身体和精神保健以及健康的决定因素(例如食物,住房,教育和财务安全)。

生命科学公司应对新的健康的机会threats and to anticipate growing risks — such as physical disruptions, pricing and patent challenges as health care costs soar, and biodiversity loss that shrinks sources of existing and potential drugs. Pharmaceutical and medical device companies can reconfigure operations and supply chains for greater resilience, align research with changing disease burden and invest in rapid-response capabilities and partnerships (such as to repurpose drugs or discover vaccines). They must also ensure universal access and affordability for essential medicines and supplies.

雇主will experience spikes in care needs and costs that may coincide with health care disruptions, productivity loss and economic strain. Employers can reduce health and safety risks for workers by modifying work sites, schedules, practices, equipment and exposures. As payers, employers should design leave and health benefits to ensure all workers receive necessary care — especially low-paid and migrant workers, who are more vulnerable to climate hazards. They can also bolster workers’ resilience by improving work-related determinants of health, such as financial well-being.

Policymakers通过加强卫生系统和建立国家和社区恢复力,可以最大限度地减少气候变化的健康影响 - 例如,通过将健康影响纳入灾害计划和减少风险。他们可以实施与健康共同福利的政策,并促进普遍获取对健康的基本服务和决定因素。政策制定者现在也可以刺激投资和创新,以监测,避免和响应未来的危机 - 例如,疾病监测,以防止流行病或疫苗平台进行快速反应。

Reducing Emissions

所有利益相关者都有空间来减少碳足迹。例如,提供商和生命科学可以转向可再生能源和低碳技术;付款人和雇主可以更喜欢可持续的产品和服务提供者以及渠道投资进入绿色资产;该部门可以使用其可信语音来教育社区气候风险和解决方案;政策制定者可以推动气候缓解和适应努力,以获得即时和长期的健康益处。

卫生部门必须通过减排和成本在不牺牲优质或关注的情况下,通过减少排放和成本来取得平衡。有些变化会提高效率和恢复力,而其他选项则提供权衡。来自Covid-19的一课一直是无所作为的成本和准备,迅速响应,弹性和协调的成本。鉴于气候变化对健康的威胁和排放与后果之间的滞后,紧急行动至关重要。今天的正确回答将降低风险,明天需要更加激烈和昂贵的变化。

Kavitha Hariharan

Marsh McLennan优势的健康社会主任

雷切尔·克尔丁

Oliver Wyman的健康与生命科学校长

Rachel是奥利弗·威曼健康与生命科学实践的校长。她在斯坦福大学获得了化学学士学位,并于2018年加入Oliver Wyman。

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