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欧盟可以成功地建立氢经济吗?

The EU is currently leading the world in the development of hydrogen technology.

作为我们偶尔系列的一部分,看着氢的出现作为21世纪的领先清洁燃料,Brink与Constantine Levoyannis的政策负责人说话氢欧洲, an association of industry and academia, to understand the policy priorities of the EU in its efforts to build a hydrogen economy.

Energy System Integration Is a Priority

康斯坦丁:欧盟的新氢战略于去年在欧洲委员会关于其报告的同一天发表的能源系统集成

能源系统集成是一个新的概念,它已经出现了过去几年,这一概念是我们需要更好地将生产来源与最终用户联系起来,一方面使用新的电力基础设施,但也确保我们做得最好使用欧洲今天的现有基础设施。

With the advent ofthe EU’s Green Deal我们面临的气候紧急情况,在2050年实现气候中立的任务现在是欧盟总体战略的前沿和中心。氢气已经成为这种难题的大片。

边缘:氢经济的哪些部分是欧盟最密切的看?

CONSTANTINE: The current priority is decarbonizing heavy industry or strategic industries, such as refineries, cement and petrochemicals. These offer a strong business case for hydrogen. “Green steel,” for example, is currently a very hot topic. Alongside the heavy industry, you also have the heavy duty transport segment as well.

我们目前不能通过电气解决方案脱碳。您需要更高的能量密度能够有效地脱碳这些重型产业区段,这就是为什么氢是良好的解决方案。当你燃烧氢气时,没有排放,这是氢的独特卖点。

电池与氢燃料电池

然而,当涉及到其他形式的运输时,这是一种令人遗憾的是,我们似乎在此时乘客的氢气 - 电池车辆被排除在外。

We are using raw materials and rare earths that are sourced from China or from different parts of Africa to develop battery technology in Europe. We need to see the hydrogen fuel cell option in passenger cars as complementary to the use of batteries — not against it. Europe is a leading continent in the production of fuel cells and hydrogen technology.

And we shouldn’t forget about heating as well. There’s a big push for the use of heat pumps to decarbonize building stock, but there are also fuel-cells solutions that can use stored hydrogen from the summer and be reconverted into electricity in the winter to heat homes in certain areas. That shouldn’t be ruled out as an option.

建立氢网是长期目标

边缘:似乎导致很多兴奋的一件事是作为能量载体的氢的想法。欧盟如何建立它需要的基础架构?

CONSTANTINE: On the one hand, you need to build the electrolyzers. And there’s clear support from the EU for production technologies like electrolyzers to ramp up. There’s a target in 2024 to have achieved six gigawatt capacity across Europe and 40 gigawatt capacity across Europe in 2030. That translates to one million tons of renewable hydrogen in 2024 and 10 million tons in 2030.

欧盟需要重新利用其天然气管道,以便我们可以将其需求的能量运送,并促进我们设想的氢市场。

在现有的天然气基础设施上也有很多关注,并且在多大程度上可以在多大程度上用于将来运输氢。它将因国家而异。例如,在荷兰,他们已经在重新施用和转换它们的气体管道以进行氢气。

There’s going to be a phased approach to hydrogen grid development in the EU. It’s clear we don’t have a market today, but what we would like to achieve is a hydrogen market in Europe that is akin to the one we have in natural gas.

Turning Gas Pipelines Into Hydrogen Pipelines

边缘:的一个关键障碍比例氢在the moment is that most hydrogen is currently created by using fossil fuels.

康斯坦丁:在短期内,氢生产需要非常接近需求。因此,乘坐德国:您在北海中有风,以产生通过电缆境内转移到电解柜的能量。这将产生氢气并进入靠近电解的行业。

So there is this concept of industrial clusters and hydrogen valleys. With hydrogen valleys, there are numerous different consumers located in a single area, such as ports.

Then, as volumes begin to increase, you can envisage more long-distance transportation of hydrogen. More than 70% of the hydrogen cost depends on the electricity cost, so we need to leverage those areas in Europe where you can cheaply produce renewable energy, such as wind in the north and solar in the south.

欧盟需要重新利用其天然气管道,以便我们可以将其需求的能量运送,并促进我们设想的氢市场。

边缘:欧盟如何进入氢比较亚洲?

康斯坦丁:作为一个大陆,我们目前正在领先于氢气的技术比赛。但是,我们有危险让那种滑倒,因为中国人正在迅速赶上,以及日本人,美国人和加拿大人。

我们需要在这种野心上采取行动,并这样做,我们需要使用使我们独特的基础架构。美国和加拿大的美国和其他地区不能夸耀欧洲在欧洲天然气的情况下就综合基础设施而言。

与此同时,欧盟委员会明确表示,可再生氢是一种巨大的优先事项,符合欧盟的长期气候目标。

赤产的挑战

目前可再生氢投资的障碍之一是额外性的原则,这需要预期可再生的氢气生产商来证明他们用于其氢生产的电力来自额外的电力来源。

But this poses significant challenges — the time taken to invest in new renewable electricity generation assets (e.g., offshore wind, which is up to seven years) is much longer than the time needed to construct an electrolyzer (less than two years). Until new electricity capacity is available, electrolyzer project developers have a very low incentive to build, as the main demand driver is precisely the renewable character of the hydrogen and its contribution toward achieving the binding targets set by the EU for renewables. Moreover, the methodology for defining this principle of additionality is not clear yet.

It should be the responsibility of all relevant players across the energy system to contribute to decarbonization and show additionality, not just H2 producers. But the revision of the欧盟可再生能源指令将于今年第二季度出版,可能是6月或7月。这将是欧洲氢经济发展的一个重要时刻。

康斯坦丁莱莫安纳尼斯

Head of Policy at Hydrogen Europe @ clevo275.

康斯坦丁莱莫安尼斯是政策主管氢欧洲。在加入氢欧洲之前,他为法国天然气基础设施公司GRTGAZ担任欧盟公共事务和通信总监。在此之前,Constantine曾担任FTI咨询的董事,为客户提供建议的客户和运输部门。

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